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Sahara Sees Rare Snow; Thousands Stranded On Turkish Highways; Record Cold Grips Middle East; Record Snow To Continue In U.S.; + Hunga Tonga Eruption Revised Up To 39km (128,000ft)…

Sahara Sees Rare Snow

Saharan sand dunes have been coated in a rare dusting of snow this week, and temperatures have plunged to -2C (28.4F) near the town of Ain Sefra, located in northeast Algeria.

This section of the Sahara has witnessed snow before, due to it being surrounded by the Atlas Mountains, but only on a handful of occasions — just five times in the last 43 years, in fact: in 1979, 2016, 2018, 2021 and now 2022.

The flakes created stunning patterns in the sand, as captured by local photographer Karim Bouchetata:

Temperatures fell to -2C (35.6F) [Karim Bouchetta].
Sahara Desert snow [Karim Bouchetta].


Bouchetata also took pictures of the Sahara snow in January last year, when sheep and camels were seen standing on the snowy dunes as temperatures dipped to -3C (26.6F).

Back in 2016, during the first Sahara snow for 37 years, enough settled to allow children to build snowmen and even sledged down the dunes. Two years later, the desert was blanketed by a whopping 18 inches after a freak winter storm hit. The flakes made a return in 2021. And then again this year, too.

Low solar activity is causing weather patterns to shift (via the weakening of the jet streams, among other mechanisms). And northern Africa is seeing this first hand. There is a greening underway across the region as more moisture is ‘funneled in’ — the return of winter snow in recent years is evidence of this.


Thousands Stranded On Turkish Highways

Turkey has been wrapped by blizzards this week, with weather woes reported across the majority of the country’s 81 provinces. The Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) said 722 roads to towns and villages in Bolu, Gaziantep, Kahramanmaraş, Artvin and Bingöl have been closed– but the situation hasn’t been much better in the cities…

Thousands of vehicles were stranded on a key highway connecting Turkey’s southern provinces as heavy snowfall swept in Tuesday and Wednesday. In total, some 4,580 people on the Tarsus-Adana-Gaziantep Motorway (TAG) had to be evacuated in bitterly cold conditions. Around 186 of those were in need of medical care, and so were promptly taken to nearby hospitals.

Clearing crews distributed food to an additional 7,000 people on the highway.

Social media was soon flooded with photos and videos, and of people requesting help.


Temperatures in Gaziantep dipped to -3C (26.6F) early Wednesday morning, and snow totals in the city center reached a record-breaking 50+cm (19.7+ inches).

With the roads jammed in and around the city, thousands of people were forced to abandon their cars and walk to safety:


Mercifully, the snow in Gaziantep ceased on Wednesday, but roads and streets were still blanketed in powder and caked in ice, and the power was out in many neighborhoods.

To help, the Turkish military dispatched helicopters to some sections of the highway, delivering food and fuel to the stranded motorists that remained. Tow trucks were also sent by the army to assist in freeing stuck vehicles.


In total, 161 bulldozers, snow plows and other heavy duty equipment were sent to clear the road.


Heavy snow also left hundreds of vehicles stranded on the Akseki-Seydişehir highway, which connects the Mediterranean province of Antalya to the central province of Konya — and as in Gaziantep, crews were delivering food to stranded motorists.

This is the story across the majority of Turkey this week (see below videos) where unprecedented snow continues to disrupt life, including forcing school closures in 52 (of 81) provinces on Wednesday.


Turkish State Meteorology Services (TSMS) warned that exceptional snowfall will persist for many through the remainder of the week. As will the cold — a low of -39.7C (-39.5F) were logged in the village of Bezirhane, Caldiran district, Van Province on Jan 18, which is exceptionally cold, especially for Turkey:


Record Cold Grip The Middle East

To Turkey’s east, record cold has been gripping a number of countries, including Lebanon, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Israel and Jordon.

In the Lebanese mountains, lows touched -27C.

In Erbil, northern Iraq, historically low readings of -15C have been reported (as has heavy snow–see below tweet); while in the Iraq’s lower elevations, a reading of –4.7C has been noted in Kirkuk, and a rare -2C in Baghdad.


Extreme lows of around -23C have been reported in the Iranian mountains; and a low of –27.4C in Saqqez, Kurdistan province–where people are reportedly suffering life-threatening conditions.

In Damask, Syria, -8C was observed on Jan 18 — an incredible feat.

Beer Sheva, Israel is also reporting rare frosts, and the country has just hit a record demand for power.

While in Jordan, according to the below tweet, record low temps have been suffered, with Safawi -for example- dropping to -5C.


Mountains along the eastern Mediterranean coast have been hit by severe blizzards in recent days.

And finally, looking further east, Turaif in Saudi Arabia reported an anomalous -6C; with Makkah, also in Saudi Arabia, registering a very low daily maximum of just 24C.


Forecasts suggest the Middle East’s anomalously-wintry conditions could persist until the end of February.

Below is a look at the region’s temperature anomalies for Feb 1:

GFS 2m Temperature Anomalies (C) Feb 1 [tropicaltidbits.com].


Record Snow To Continue In U.S.

Following the record snowfall over the past week, much of the U.S. is set to be clattered by another Arctic blast with snow and ice forecast for huge swathes of the country.

Another large winter storm is set to sweep up from the Southeast through parts of the Midwest and East Coast, according to The Weather Channel. In response, the National Weather Service has issued winter storm watches covering many states, including New York, New Jersey, Virginia, and Texas.

Most winter storm warnings begin Thursday morning or afternoon. And they come just days after winter storm Izzy dropped a foot or more of snow in several northern states after also slamming the Southeast.

Below are the latest GFS runs.

They show anomalous cold gripping much of the CONUS through Thursday, with readings easily dipping as much as 16-20C below the seasonal average:

GFS 2m Temperature Anomalies (C) Thurs, Jan 20 [tropicaltidbits.com].


The snow, as mentioned above, will also be noteworthy, and not only for the east — the west will also cop another sizable dusting, adding to the record monthly accumulations registered in December.

GFS Total Snowfall (inches) Jan 20 – Feb 5 [tropicaltidbits.com].


All this snow is also adding to Northern Hemisphere’s Total Snow Mass, which, as of the latest data point (Jan 18), is tracking some 400+ Gigatons above the 1982-2012 average:

[FMI]


Hunga Tonga Eruption Revised Up To 39km (128,000ft)

And finally, Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai’s eruption of Jan 15 has been revised up, all-but confirming it as a VEI 5.

Based on preliminary satellite data from global weather radars, the estimated height of the eruption column reached an altitude of 39km (128,000 ft), which, if confirmed, would make it the highest eruption in modern times.

Such a stratospheric injection of particulates is expected to cool the planet by around 0.3C, lasting a period of 12-18 months.

Latest Himawari-8 satellite imagery of SO2 concentrations in the atmosphere reveal that the aerosol plume is now extending over the Indian Ocean, advancing towards eastern Africa:


It will still be weeks before the final rating of the eruption is in, but a mid-range VEI 5 designation is highly probable.

This would make Hunga Tonga’s explosion one of the largest since Mount Tambora’s VEI 7 back in 1815, which resulted in ‘The Year Without A Summer’ during the Dalton Minimum (1790-1830). It would also rank it just behind Pinatubo’s large VEI 5 blast of 1991, which is thought to have cooled the planet by approx. 0.5 to 0.6C.

Stay tuned for updates on Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai — the data is still coming in.

One way or another, the COLD TIMES are returning, the mid-latitudes are REFREEZING–likely in line with historically low solar activitycloud-nucleating Cosmic Rays, and a meridional jet stream flow (among many other forcings, including the impending release of the Beaufort Gyre).

Prepare accordingly — learn the facts, relocate if need be and grow your own.

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32 Thoughts to “Sahara Sees Rare Snow; Thousands Stranded On Turkish Highways; Record Cold Grips Middle East; Record Snow To Continue In U.S.; + Hunga Tonga Eruption Revised Up To 39km (128,000ft)…”

  1. Anonymous

    Whatever happened to anthropogenic global warming?
    I note the Conservatives (or Johnsonites) have made it some sort of a leading policy.

  2. Y.D. Robinson

    I always thought that Tambora was a low VEI 7 and Pinatubo a low VEI 6.

    On another point, if we’re talking about potential cooling of 0.3C, that’s a) less than the 0.5-0.6C cooling associated with Pinatubo and b) not nearly enough (at least by itself) to cause a Little Ice Age or a Year Without A Summer. Even with Pinatubo, it was more like a “volcanic autumn” than a “volcanic winter”. In terms of global impacts, what we’re talking about with this is the post-volcanic equivalent, as it were, more of – say – the SARS pandemic of 2002-03 than of this Covid mega-pandemic, whereas post-Pinatubo was the post-volcanic equivalent of maybe the 1968-69 flu pandemic.

    1. Cap Allon

      Tambora was indeed a VEI 7 — article updated.

      And no, Hunga Tonga’s VEI 5 won’t lead to a volcanic winter/autumn, but it will bring additional cooling to that already being delivered by low solar activity.

      Best,
      Cap

      1. Wizard

        Like chainmail:

        One metal ring is insignificant, but make a chain out of those small rings, and then it’s a whole other ball game.

        Imagine driving a car without heat, and after a while, you start to shiver. Suddenly, heat finally kicks in, and moments before you stop to shive, you turn off the heat. It won’t freeze you instantly, but imagine the feeling you would have in such a situation. That’s the Hunga-Tonga eruption like.

    2. prioris

      So called SARS pandemic of 2002-3 had a total of around 8K people die world wide so it was a FAKE pandemic via propaganda by the governments. The CDC will still claim it was a pandemic to this day.

      1. Wizard

        This one is also fake, most people are actually dying due to fear or physical conditions induced by fear.

        1. Most people are dying from the toxic Covid-19 “vaccines”.
          See proof in my recent papers:

          SCIENTIFIC COMPETENCE – THE ABILITY TO CORRECTLY PREDICT October 20, 2021. Update November 8, 2021, Update January 14, 2022
          https://correctpredictions.ca/

          CLIMATE CHANGE, COVID-19, AND THE GREAT RESET – A Climate, Energy and Covid Primer for Politicians and Media March 21, 2021, Update 1e May 8, 2021
          https://thsresearch.files.wordpress.com/2021/05/climate-change-covid-19-and-the-great-reset-update-1e-readonly.docx

          THE CATASTROPHIC ANTHROPOGENIC GLOBAL WARMING (CAGW) AND THE HUMANMADE CLIMATE CHANGE CRISES ARE PROVED FALSE January 10, 2020
          https://thsresearch.files.wordpress.com/2020/01/the-catastrophic-anthropogenic-global-warming-cagw-and-the-humanmade-climate-change-crises-are-proved-false.pdf
          ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬

          1. Wizard

            You’re wrong. Biggest contributing factor is fear, regardless of amount of poison one injects in himself. Fear decreases immunity and makes you vulnerable to real and imaginary problems. If you remove fear, you become almost immune to all of the agenda.

      2. Nick

        SARS 2002 created at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill. Here’s the patent – https://patents.justia.com/patent/7279327

        Most likely modifed over the next 15 years to be more transmissible between humans so we ended up with the Fauci flu.

    3. Nico

      There is no pandemic.Agree with the rest of your post.

      1. Told you so – two decades ago. People will die from the cold and the green energy disaster. I tried…
        I accurately predicted the current British energy crisis in 2002 and in greater detail in 2013. January and February 2022 will be worse.

        To understand the big picture, understand this:
        If you live in the developed world and you suddenly lose access to cheap reliable energy, you and your family will probably not survive. When idiot politicians fool around with energy policy and try to pick winners and losers, they are playing a very dangerous game. When they base their energy policy decisions on fraudulent global warming “settled science”, they are playing a fool’s game. Either way, you lose.
        – Allan MacRae, 19March2012

        CORRECT CLIMATE AND ENERGY PREDICTIONS FROM 2002
        In 2002 my co-authors and I published:
        1. “Climate science does not support the theory of catastrophic human-made global warming – the alleged warming crisis does not exist.”
        2. “The ultimate agenda of pro-Kyoto advocates is to eliminate fossil fuels, but this would result in a catastrophic shortfall in global energy supply – the wasteful, inefficient energy solutions proposed by Kyoto advocates simply cannot replace fossil fuels.”
        I published on September 1, 2002:
        3. “If [as we believe] solar activity is the main driver of surface temperature rather than CO2, we should begin the next cooling period by 2020 to 2030.”
        I updated my global cooling prediction in 2013:
        3a. “I suggest global cooling starts by 2020 or sooner. Bundle up.”
        This global cooling is primarily solar-induced, driven by the end of very-weak Solar Cycle 24 (SC24) and the beginning of very-weak SC25, as we published in 2002.
        Reference:
        “SCIENTIFIC COMPETENCE – THE ABILITY TO CORRECTLY PREDICT”
        by Allan MacRae, B.A.Sc., M.Eng., October 20, 2021, Update Nov. 8, 2021,
        Update January 14, 2022
        https://correctpredictions.ca/

        AN OPEN LETTER TO BARONESS VERMA
        British Undersecretary for Energy and Climate Change, 31Oct2013
        By Allan MacRae, B.A.Sc.(Eng.), M.Eng.
        [excerpt]
        So here is my real concern:
        IF the Sun does indeed drive temperature, as I suspect, Baroness Verma, then you and your colleagues on both sides of the House may have brewed the perfect storm.
        You are claiming that global cooling will NOT happen, AND you have crippled your energy systems with excessive reliance on ineffective grid-connected “green energy” schemes.
        I suggest that global cooling probably WILL happen within the next decade or sooner, and Britain will get colder.
        I also suggest that the IPCC and the Met Office have NO track record of successful prediction (or “projection”) of global temperature and thus have no scientific credibility.
        I suggest that Winter deaths will increase in the UK as cooling progresses.
        I suggest that Excess Winter Mortality, the British rate of which is about double the rate in the Scandinavian countries, should provide an estimate of this unfolding tragedy.

        1. Ice Age Eugenics and Biodigital-convergence Now.Info

          It’s tough being a “Cassandra Revolutionary”, Herr MacRae.
          The few who heeded yours, Robert Felix’s, Rolf Witzsche’s, Alan Watt’s and now the Cap’n’s prescient warnings are hopefully better positioned/prepared for these times, right here, right now. Cheers.

          In a world of universal deceit, telling the truth is a revolutionary act.” George Orwell, 1984
          https://external-content.duckduckgo.com/iu/?u=https%3A%2F%2Fmma.prnewswire.com%2Fmedia%2F1315772%2FThe_Revolution_of_Cassandra.jpg%3Fw%3D500&f=1&nofb=1

        2. Nico

          You didn’t have to tell me anything,i knew about all of this 20+ years ago already.Maybe you have mistaken me with someone else,but everything you mentioned i have been telling people around me for years.Luckily there is a pushback against the greenies and global warmists over here.More people are realizing there is no dangerous runaway warming happening.But not nearly enough to make the nutcases in power realize their policies are close to insanity,and will end up putting alot of people in darkness.They still want to close our nuclear power plants without having any reasonable backup.Also i’m not in the UK so i really don’t care what happens with the weather on the Isles.
          I have enough stuff to worry about on the mainland already.

          1. In addition to the UK, Germany is also at greatest risk, due to over-investment in intermittent wind power and the shutdown of nuclear plants.

            Hey, I’m in Canada, we are OK for the moment, until our traitorous PM Fidel Trudeau screws it up even more.

            So why do I care? Because I have friends in the UK and German and also because of this:

            REQUIEM
            No man is an island, alone of itself;
            Every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main;
            If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is diminished, even as a promontory were,
            even as a manor of thy friends or of thine own were;
            Any man’s death concerns me, because I am concerned with mankind.
            And therefore send not to know for whom the bell tolls;
            It tolls for thee.

            MEDITATION XVII
            Devotions upon Emergent Occasions
            John Donne, 1624

    4. “this Covid mega-pandemic” was not a pandemic or even a serious epidemic. Is was a world-scale scam.
      Read the following papers:

      SCIENTIFIC COMPETENCE – THE ABILITY TO CORRECTLY PREDICT October 20, 2021. Update November 8, 2021, Update January 14, 2022
      https://correctpredictions.ca/

      CLIMATE CHANGE, COVID-19, AND THE GREAT RESET – A Climate, Energy and Covid Primer for Politicians and Media March 21, 2021, Update 1e May 8, 2021
      https://thsresearch.files.wordpress.com/2021/05/climate-change-covid-19-and-the-great-reset-update-1e-readonly.docx

      1. Yosef Robinson

        Allan MacRae, Nico, prioris, and Wizard: If all of you say that Covid-19 isn’t a pandemic, and neither certainly was SARS just about 20 years ago, what do you make of the “Spanish Flu” pandemic of 1918-19 that killed 20 million people worldwide (many more people than the death toll so far from Covid, in an era when the world population was so much smaller)? What do you make of the smallpox pandemics that finished off upwards of 90% of all indigenous peoples in the Americas in the first century or may two after 1492? What do you make of the Black Death that killed one third or so of all Europeans in the mid-1300s, or other outbreaks of bubonic plague that killed millions?

          1. Anonymous

            The 1918-19 Spanish Flu WAS a real pandemic.
            The Covid-19 illness was NOT.
            To 1July2020 there was NO “death bump” in Alberta or Canada. No increase in All-Cause Total Deaths means NO real pandemic.
            Average age of death from Covid in Alberta in 2020 was 82 – three years more than expected lifespan in Canada.
            Deaths in the USA attributed to Covid-19 were exaggerated by~16 times – these were Deaths WITH Covid, not Deaths FROM Covid.
            Read my latest paper.

          2. The 1918-19 Spanish Flu WAS a real pandemic.
            The Covid-19 illness was NOT.
            To 1July2020 there was NO “death bump” in Alberta or Canada. No increase in All-Cause Total Deaths means NO real pandemic.
            Average age of death from Covid in Alberta in 2020 was 82 – three years more than expected lifespan in Canada.
            Deaths in the USA attributed to Covid-19 were exaggerated by~16 times – these were Deaths WITH Covid, not Deaths FROM Covid.
            Read my latest paper.

      2. My updated most recent paper is here:
        “SCIENTIFIC COMPETENCE – THE ABILITY TO CORRECTLY PREDICT”
        by Allan MacRae, B.A.Sc., M.Eng.
        October 20, 2021, Update Nov. 8, 2021, Update January 14, 2022
        https://correctpredictions.ca/

        Nico – to be clear, my post was copied from a statement that I had addressed to warmists/wokes , not intended for you personally.

  3. ~jim

    I wonder if one of the volcanos in the South Sandwich Islands could be next. 400+ earthquakes many ~/=10 km in the past year. Similar to the pattern of quakes leading up to la Palma?

    1. AZ1971

      My money is on one of the volcanoes in Iceland. We’ve seen an uptick in seismic activity under Hekla and Katla, as well as Grímsvötn, in addition to the recently-ended eruption at Fagradalsfjall. You also have to consider WHEN a stratospheric injection occurs—if it’s on the cusp of a northern hemisphere summer, more solar insolation will be blocked and cause greater cooling than if it occurred during a NH winter.

      Then again, there are hundreds of volcanoes around the planet and any one of them could go off at virtually any time. As Cap says, “be prepared”.

      1. Matt Dalby

        Presumably this means that Hunga-Tonga will cause a lot of cooling for the size of the eruption as it’s in the S. Hemisphere and at the height of their summer. It will be interesting to see how much of the ash/sulphur spreads into the N. Hemisphere, and therefore if the North will see much cooling compared with the South.
        Also the VEI only gives a rough guide to the amount of cooling since it merely refers to the volume of ejected material. Different volcanic explosions will produce different shaped plumes, and what’s important for longer term cooling is the amount of material that reaches the stratosphere, as anything remaining in the troposphere is fairly quickly washed out by rainfall. To put it in simple terms what matters is whether the blast was mainly upward or outward (Mount St Helens was a very large explosion, but had no effect on the climate as it was a lateral blast and non of the debris reached the stratosphere.
        Also longer term cooling is largely caused by sulphur, and the amount of sulphur per unit of ejected material will depend on the chemical composition of the magma which is different from volcano to volcano.
        Therefore Cap’s estimate of roughly 0.3 degrees of cooling seems reasonable, but depending on the exact details of the blast Hunga-Tonga could throw us a bit of a surprise and produce significantly more or less cooling. However I very much doubt there’ll be 1 degree of cooling but you never know.

  4. Mystic’s Mystic

    The temperature dropping .3 * C might last a lot longer then 12 to 18 months unless our dormant sun returns to normal irradiance for some reason.

    1. Wizard

      People are “putting all their eggs” in the intelligence basket and hence unable to discern a pattern you’re suggesting. We as humans are capable of connecting the dots and seeing patterns, but from the moment of birth, this up-side down designed society tends to make us immune from seeing the dots (The “you’re crazy, there’s nothing there” or “you’re not qualified” arguments)

      Awareness = Intelligence

      BUT

      Intelligence != Awareness

  5. Deb

    As I have been saying for the last 10+ years, we will know the (mini) ice age has arrived when the cold/snow records we are breaking are not from 100 years ago, but from LAST YEAR.

    Looking at the snow dates in the Sahara, it seems to have arrived.

  6. JD

    Minor correct needed in the lead sentence. A temperature of -2*C is equal to +28.4*F, not -28.4*F. Otherwise, thanks for doing what you do.

  7. Walter

    I enjoy reading these articles they are so interesting and it’s hard to imagine being in a LIA after being brainwashed by the AGW and being scared out of my mind for years, which brings me to my next point. I have a friend who is a climate alarmist and we both live in Salt Lake City, UT. Apparently this is the article that set his alarmist radar off: https://abcnews.go.com/US/us-snowfall-totals-46-1970s-due-rising-global/story?id=68748708
    How would you criticize this article? I will admit that we have had some below average snowfalls in the past couple of winters but I’m not convinced it’s global warming

  8. Greg in NZ

    We had our first snowfall of the year yesterday, Thursday 20 January, with 10-20 cm of goebbels warming goodness coating Mt Hutt skifield (and The Remarkables and Craigeburn amongst others) in the South Island thanks to a cold front sneaking up from the Antarctic Ocean / Furious Fifties (50-59° South latitude).

    Yes, it’s the middle of our summer here, yet snow can, and does, fall any old time of the year – the last few years we’ve had snow fall every single month, winter AND summer – so no change in the ‘climate’ at all whatsoever. And, no, it had nought to do with ex-cyclone Cody nor the eruption in Tonga [pronounced TAW-ngah, not ton-GAH please].

    The sulphur dioxide / ash cloud heading westwards over Australia and the Indian Ocean sure is intriguing: next destination Africa?

    1. DIrk Pitt

      The plume split, one branch of the SO2 went South past NZ and that branch is headed for S America by Saturday and to Mid S Atlantic by Monday AM. The West branch will be almost to Africa by then and the two could meet a couple of days later S of Africa.
      The plume from the blast two weeks ago went N to Alaska. It mixed with Hawaii volcano plume on the way and met with plumes from Alaska volcano, Kamchatka, ETC. That batch went through N America already and produced snow and then joined the plume from C America, S America, Mexico on the way across the Atlantic to party through EU and back into the loop to the Pacific. What a show. From small solar flares. What’s an X flare going to do going to do? Mercury in retrograde now with many other alignments also in play for the next few weeks into the Winter Olympics in China. Gung Hay Fat Choy, Feb 1.
      https://www.windy.com/-Show—add-more-layers/overlays?tcso2,2022012218,-48.662,-84.990,4

      Last night’s flare, inbound:
      https://www.spaceweather.com/images2022/20jan22/blackoutmap.jpg

  9. CO2, GLOBAL WARMING, CLIMATE AND ENERGY
    by Allan M.R. MacRae, B.A.Sc., M.Eng., June 15, 2019
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2019/06/15/co2-global-warming-climate-and-energy-2/
    [excerpts]

    This formula works reasonably well back to 1982, which is the limit of my data availability. The Sato index is a function of century-scale volcanoes.
    We’ll see if Hunga Tonga is big enough – it certainly blew high enough.

    5. UAH LT Global Temperatures can be predicted ~4 months in the future with just two parameters:

    UAHLT (+4 months) = 0.2*Nino34Anomaly + 0.15 – 5*SatoGlobalAerosolOpticalDepth (Figs. 5a and 5b)

    6. The sequence is Nino34 Area SST warms, seawater evaporates, Tropical atmospheric humidity increases, Tropical atmospheric temperature warms, Global atmospheric temperature warms, atmospheric CO2 increases (Figs.6a and 6b).

    Important: Atmospheric CO2 changes LAG temperature changes at all measured time scales. The future cannot cause the past. (MacRae, January 2008).

  10. Atom man

    Very interesting – seeing all that snow in the Middle East reminded me of what I once read – 60 thousand years ago (assuming that timeline is correct!), the Ice Age in Europe was so severe it forced Neanderthals down into the Middle East and likely led to more “gene swapping” as most Caucasians have some Neanderthal genes and more “mid face projection”.

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